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Low-GHG Steel

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The production of iron and steel is responsible for about 5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. 70% of today’s iron is made in blast furnaces that use coke or coal as their energy source. Technology enabled opportunities for significant greenhouse gas emissions reductions from iron and steel production include CO2 capture and storage, direct reduction of iron oxide to iron using natural gas, and the replacement of coal with plant-based charcoal. Other potentially transformative pathways include the direct reduction of iron oxide to iron using low greenhouse gas hydrogen or low-carbon electricity.