In addition to figuring out how to cost-effectively capture CO2 at fossil-fueled power plants and industrial plants, we need to find cost effective and reliable ways to transport captured CO2 and sequester it somewhere (for example, deep underground) or convert it into other useful chemical substances. Promising geological sites for CO2 sequestration include deep saline formations, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams. CO2 can be sequestered directly as a fluid or can be converted into a solid product for more stable sequestration. Furthermore, promising pathways exist for converting CO2 into valuable chemicals and materials as well. The development of transformational new intrinsically-stable CO2 sequestration approaches and cost-effective CO2 conversion technologies present significant emerging opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at scale.